Sukhova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna, Doctor of historical sciences, professor, dean of the faculty of history and languages, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Yagov Oleg Vasil'evich, Doctor of historical sciences, professor, sub-department of Russian history and history teaching methodology, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the need to study the historical experience of the mobilization economy in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The purpose of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the transformation of the tools and content of the Soviet leadership agricultural policy in 1944–1945.
Materials and methods. The article analyzes archival materials and research results of the collective farm system in Russian historiography. The corpus of sources is formed by the office documentation of the Popular Commissariat of agriculture of the USSR (USSR Ministry of agriculture), local authorities, regulations, periodicals. The research methodology is based on the principles of a systematic approach to the consideration of issues of the public administration history and economic policy during the Great Patriotic war. In this context, the solution of the research problem involves consideration of factors, resources and forms of management practices, compensation mechanisms, limits of functioning and opportunities for transformation.
Results. As a result of applying a systematic approach, the features of the development of the Soviet state agricultural policy at the final stage of the Great Patriotic war were revealed. The conditions of the mobilization system functioning, adaptation mechanisms, and management practices of the collective farm village were described. The efficiency of the collective farm system in the period of 1944–1945 was evaluated.
Conclusions. Analysis of management practices and the state of the collective farm system at the first stage of the war revealed the limits of using the mobilization model. There are practically no opportunities to refill the resources of the Soviet village in the extreme conditions of military everyday life. The final turning point in the war allowed the Soviet leadership to change the main vector of agricultural policy from military to investment. The use of elements of the market economy and scientific organization of labor turned out to be among the priorities, which made it possible to achieve relative stabilization of the agricultural sector of the economy.
Great Patriotic War, mobilization economy, agricultural policy, collective farm system, factors of social and economic adaptation
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